Author: James Anderson

Medications Used for Seizure Emergencies

what is em drug

This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Data sources include Micromedex (updated 3 Mar 2024), Cerner Multum™ (updated 17 Mar 2024), ASHP (updated 10 Mar 2024) and others. In some cases, such as when a person has frequent seizures despite the use of maintenance AEDs, the healthcare provider might prescribe a rescue medication to take at home or at an assisted care facility. Usually, caregivers will be given detailed instructions about dosing and timing.

  1. Emergency medicine is the medical speciality concerned with the care of illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.
  2. Emergency medical physicians generally practice in hospital emergency departments, pre-hospital settings via emergency medical services, and intensive care units.
  3. Emergency medicine is still not recognised as a fully-fledged speciality in a country that has only recently grasped the importance of having an organised acute medical speciality (during the COVID-19 outbreak).
  4. These lesions can start on the backs of hands and tops of feet before spreading to the trunk.
  5. There’s also a much more severe and life-threatening form of EM that may affect the mouth, eyes, and even genitals.

This benzodiazepine nasal spray is indicated for acute treatment of seizure clusters in patients with epilepsy 12 years of age and older. An additional 5 mg spray can be used into the opposite nostril after 10 minutes if necessary. The first residency program in Iran started in 2002 at Iran University of Medical Sciences, and there are now three-year standard residency programs running in Tehran, Tabriz, Mashhad, Isfahan, and some other universities. All these programs work under the supervision of the emergency medicine speciality board committee. There are now more than 200 (and increasing) board-certified Emergency Physicians in Iran.

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At least 50% of the training is in the emergency department; the other part is a rotation between disciplines like pediatrics, surgery, orthopedic surgery, anesthesiology and critical care medicine. Sub-specializations of emergency medicine include; disaster medicine, medical toxicology, point-of-care ultrasonography, critical care medicine, emergency medical services, hyperbaric medicine, sports medicine, palliative care, or aerospace medicine. Emergency medical physicians provide treatments to a range of cases requiring vast knowledge.

(intramuscular) administered epinephrine has a rapid onset and short duration of action. Subcutaneous (SC) administration during asthmatic attacks may produce bronchodilation within 5 to 10 minutes, and maximal effects may occur within 20 minutes. Epinephrine injection can be utilized to prolong the action of local anesthetics 18.

Methimazole is used in the treatment of Hyperthyroidism and belongs to the drug class antithyroid agents. Methimazole 5 mg is not a controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). However, most people who experience EM will recover completely after a few weeks. If herpes simplex triggered the rash, then you may have to use antiviral medication to prevent recurrences. Your doctor may stop all drugs as a first step to discovering which could be causing the symptoms. In minor cases of EM, there are lesions covering the affected area.

what is em drug

In addition to the above functions, epinephrine is the primary drug administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to reverse cardiac arrest 3, 4. Most maintenance AEDs are taken orally (by mouth) and are not absorbed quickly enough to stop ongoing seizures. However, the injected formulations of some maintenance AEDs are sometimes used as rescue seizure medications. This barbiturate medication interacts with GABA to control seizures.

If it’s due to medication

Rarely, a person who has seizures would be given instructions about how to self-administer a rescue medication during the pre-ictal stage of a seizure to prevent the seizure from progressing to the ictal phase. This oral benzodiazepine is used in managing anxiety disorders and muscle spasms. It is also used as a rescue seizure treatment in select circumstances, when a person can safely take it by mouth. If the seizures stop, no further administration of Ativan is recommended. If the seizures continue or recur after 10 to 15 minutes, an additional 4 mg dose is administered at the same rate as the first dose.

what is em drug

Epinephrine should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly required in critical situations/emergencies 20. Rescue medications are different from maintenance therapies, which are anti-epilepsy drugs (AEDs) that are taken on a regular ongoing basis to prevent seizures. Klonopin is a benzodiazepine that is used in the treatment of anxiety disorders. It is also used to treat acute persistent, repetitive seizures that occur as part of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and myoclonic epilepsy.


Dr. Moawad regularly writes and edits health and career content for medical books and publications. If necessary, a second dose can be used at least 4 hours after the initial dose. No more than two doses should be used to treat a single episode and Valtoco should not be used more than every five days and it shouldn’t be used to treat more than five episodes per month.

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According to Mead v. Legacy Health System,[62] a patient-physician relationship is established when “the physician takes an affirmative action with regard to the care of the patient”. Initiating such a relationship forms a legal contract in which the physician must continue to provide treatment or adequately terminate the relationship.[63] This legal responsibility can extend to physician consultations and on-call physicians even without direct patient contact. In emergency medicine, termination of the patient–provider relationship prior to stabilization or without handoff to another qualified provider is considered abandonment. In order to initiate an outside transfer, a physician must verify that the next hospital can provide a similar or higher level of care. Hospitals and physicians must also ensure that the patient’s condition will not be further aggravated by the transfer process.